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Research Supporting our Educational Efforts

The impact of the use of aversives on animals is well-researched.  Our position on the use of aversives in animal training is not only one based on our ethics, it is supported by scientific data.

 Azrin, N.H., Rubin, H.B., & Hutchinson, R.R. (1968, September). Biting Attack by Rats In Response To Aversive Shock. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (11) 633-639.

Beerda, B., Schilder, M., van Hooff, J., de Vriesa, H., & Mola, J. (1998, July). Behavioral, saliva cortisol, and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science (58) 365–381.

Blackwell, E., & Casey, R. (2006). The use of shock collars and their impact on the welfare of dogs. University of Bristol.

Blackwell, E., et. al. (2008). The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs.  Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 3(5), 207–217.

Blackwell, E. et. al (2012).  The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods.  BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 8(93). 

British Small Animal Veterinary Association. (2012). Position Statement on Aversive Training Methods (Electronic and Other Aversive Collars). Position Statement No. 31.

Dale, S. (2000).Vets on Behavior Proclaim, Never Use Shock Collar.

Deldalle, et al (2013).  Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog–owner relationship.  Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 9(2), 58-65.

Englert, K. (n.d.). The Use of Electric Shock Collars vs. Other Training Methods: Efficacy, Stress, and Welfare Concerns.

Friedman, S. (2010, March). What’s Wrong with This Picture? Effectiveness Is Not Enough. APDT Journal.

Haverbecke, et. al. (2007).  Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team’s performances.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 113, 110–122.  

Herron, (2009). Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors.  Applied Animal Behavior Science, Volume 117 (1-2), 47–54.  

Hiby, E.F. Rooney, N.J., & Bradshaw, J.W.S. (2004, February). Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare. Animal Welfare (13) 1 63-69(7).

Hibley, et. al. (2004).  Training methods and owner–dog interactions: Links with dog behaviour and learning ability. Applied Animal Behavior Science, Volume 132 (3-4), 169–177.

Miller, P. (2006, February). Shock or Awe. Whole Dog Journal.

Miller, P. (1999, May). Electronic devices and aversive-laden collars are NOT the ideal fence. Whole Dog Journal.

Overall, K.L. (2013). Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Polsky, R. (2010). Can Aggression in Dogs Be Elicited Through the Use of Electronic Pet Containment Systems? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science (3) 4 345-357

Polsky, R. (1983) Factors influencing aggressive behaviour in dogs. California Veterinarian, 10. 

Rooney, et al. (2011).  Dog training methods: Their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare. Animal Welfare, 13:63-69.

Schalke, E., Stichnoth, J., Ott, S., & Jones-Baade, R. (2007, July). Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science (105) 4 369–380.

Schalke, E., Stichnoth, J. and Jones-Baade, R. (2005) Stress symptoms caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs (Canis Familiaris) in everyday life situations. Current Issues and Research in Veterinary Behavioural Medicine: Papers presented at the 5th International Veterinary Behaviour meeting. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Schilder, M., & van der Borg, J. (2004). Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science (85) 319–334.

Solomon R., Kamin, L. and Wynne, C. (1953) Traumatic avoidance learning: The outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 48 (2), 291-302.

Tortora, D.F. (1982a). Understanding Electronic Dog Training Part 1. Canine Practice, 9 (2), 17-22.

The Kennel Club. (2017). Electric Shock Collars.

Welsh Government. (2016). Electronic Shock Collars.

Ziv, G. (2017). The Effects of Using Aversive Training Methods in Dogs – A Review. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research (0) 0.